Genetic diseases are one of the most common health problems affecting the lives of the individual, the family and the community in all their common and rare types, and doctors define the genetic disease as any disorder resulting from a defect in the individual’s DNA due to a partial or total decrease or increase in the number of chromosomes, and this disorder is transmitted in one family from parents to children and with repeated marriages of the same family, children are more likely to have these diseases.
Types of genetic diseases
Are diseases caused by a defect in one of the chromosomes inherited to the character of human qualities and is divided into two types:
- Common genetic diseases:
- Is transmitted from one parent to the sons and affects the males and females equally and the possibility of the fetus carrying the disease or not is 50%.
- There are nearly 600 diseases of the common genetic diseases in the world but the most common among people are neurofibromatosis type, and syndromes Abert, Nun and Ehlers Danlos
- Recessive genetic diseases:
- Are transmitted to the children as a result of a defect in a gene in both parents but they do not suffer from any symptoms and these diseases often appear in the marriage of relatives, and every birth is distributed in the probability of 25% normal, 25% patient, and 50% carrying the disease, and does not suffer any Symptoms.
- There are about 500 types of this disease, including: metabolic diseases, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, muscle atrophy, and genetic deafness.
Diseases caused by any change in chromosomes and can be on two types:
- Numerical chromosomal changes: genetic diseases caused by a decrease in the number of chromosomes bearing genetic traits or an increase in their number, most notably Down syndrome.
- Structural chromosomal changes: genetic diseases caused by a change in the shape and structure of a chromosome. The rate of infection per 1,000 live children is 5.6, for example the cat’s crying disease.
Are the diseases caused by the availability of several genetic and environmental causes and usually the main cause of this type of disease is not known accurately, such as genetic heart disease.
The most serious genetic diseases
- Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disease caused by the absence of the protein regulates the level of chloride in the body.
- Down Syndrome: A genetic disease caused by a chromosome 21 disorder that results in impaired mental strength and thinking along with other symptoms.
- Muscular atrophy: A disease that results in a decrease in the amount of muscle in the body, causing the lack of natural growth with physical and mental weakness.
- Thalassemia: A recessive genetic blood disease that results in broken red blood cells, poor appetite, bone pain and increase the spleen size.
- Sickle cell anemia: A disease that causes the red blood cells to be in the form of crescent or sickle and thus less amount of oxygen carried to the cells resulting in delayed growth and shortness of breath and feeling tired and tired.