Climate change…The case that haunts human civilization, how did it start and develop, and means to confront it.
Climate change and environmental sciences are generally considered two underestimated issues in many communities around the globe, which do not give much importance to the issue like most of the other issues. The Arab world in particular, we rarely see specialists talking about this issue whether in different official conferences or awareness seminars.
Subsequently, this issue in particular for an unknown reason does not get much approval in the Arab world, it is considered an issue in which amateurs or people whose countries do not worry about tragedies like ours; completely unaware that this issue may send humanity to oblivion.
Throughout last year and up until now, Arab world witnessed unprecedented changes in high temperatures during summer. On the other hand, very low degrees that even reaches below zero during winter. The definition of climate change is not just confined in these two things, but the issue is much bigger than that. Climate change in general is known to be any long term change in weather forecast rate which occurs in a specific area. Weather condition is defined as a change in temperatures and the change in rainfall and wind blowing rates. This change has many effects on earth; its direct effect occurs through making radical changes on terrains of planet earth till the depth of oceans that guarantees increase or decrease of water level or even the death of marine organisms unnoticeably. Earthly phenomena are one of the climatic change causes. These phenomena include volcanoes, the fall of huge meteors, powerful sunrays and human civilization.
The beginning of Human civilization effect on climate.
According to new researches published by Dr. “Andrew King” of Melbourne University, human civilization made a record in affecting earth climate starting from 1937 till 2014.
These researches state that the temperature made a record in Australia which is located in the south-east hemisphere in earth and in the middle of the ocean.
New studies which explain climate change.
Generally, global warming occurs due to greenhouse gases. There are three primary types of greenhouse gases and they are: Carbone dioxide, Methane and Nitrogen”.
It was believed that Carbone dioxide is the sole causer of clime change. As a result, Countries have worked intensively to reduce the sources of Carbone dioxide as a means to reduce the risk of climate change.
Surprisingly, climate scientists have discovered that the amount of Methane and Nitrogen which the earth absorbs is a lot more than the capability of the earth to absorb Carbone dioxide and these two gases are produced by humans from their eco systems. The previous phenomena make the biosphere of earth a main factor in climate change.
As a result to this discovery, scientists started to research a new study about other resources which cause gases emissions which is through searching “bio emissions” only without the need of researching artificial sources such as fossil fuel or producing natural gas. These ‘’ bio-emissions’’ are the emissions of gas from plants, animals, microbes and other bio-sources which are the result of human industries along the previous three decades. These industries have increased above the normal rate due to the industrial revolution.
In other terms, the biosphere has contributed indirectly in climate change due to industries and human contributions.
Scientists who conduct such study have found that gas emissions which cause global warming are different according to the area.
The study demonstrated that gas emissions caused by human in south Asia in countries such as India and China are considered to be the countries which have the most effect on high temperature as opposed to other countries. This is due to the fact that south Asia areas have around 90% of rice fields in the world and more than 60% of Nitrogenous fertilizers use. Consequently, Methane emission increases in these areas greatly due to rice agriculture and livestock. Additionally, fertilizers are a main reason behind Nitrous oxide. Thus, biosphere has become a main contributor to climate change and the matter is not only limited to greenhouse gases.
The effect of organic emissions on Atmosphere:
Clouds are formed from intensive water drops to small molecules attached in air. When the air is wet, small molecules are enlarged and become cloud drops.
Cloud drops are defined as particles of running water which diameter ranges between a few to tens of micrometers. These particles are formed through water vapor in the atmosphere and it got stuck with other particles to form clouds. It is well known that the number and size of these particles are what define the glimmering of clouds and it produces a shattered scene of sunrays passing through it. On the other hand, the real challenge to climate scientists is to understand and define the effect of these particles on polluted areas. Organic emissions affect clouds in the atmosphere in which it works on reducing the temperature in an unknown method. Consequently, this change takes the form of extremely low temperatures and unprecedented frigidity in climate. Searches have found that these emissions affect in an opposite direction on the atmosphere since they are described as volatile organic substances from the biosphere. These substances evaporate and result in distinctive odors such as the smell of ‘’ pine forests’’.
Jordan Macvigance, professor of geology, atmosphere and environmental science at Manchester University, states that they have discovered that organic substances which are formulated from forests emissions or car exhaust affect a specific number of molecules in clouds. Subsequently, they affect the brightness of louds and the climate in general. This occurs due to cold moist conditions which help formulate clouds and thus, some of its’ molecules transform into liquid. On the other hand, big molecules are formulated in clouds and they are considered the main responsible and effective seeds to form cloud drops.
Numerous cloud drops formulate a brighter cloud and it reflect sunlight and demonstrate its’ brightness unlike any other cloud. Professor Jordan further states calculations have been made to check the effect of cooling on global climate and it found that it occurs due to increase of large seed cloud influence.
The effect of climate change on the water level of oceans and lifestyle.
A new study has demonstrated that a large number of people around the world live nearby a sea coast in an unexpected percentage. These people are most at risk to the rise of water level or sea level in addition to the increasing number of floods and intense storms in these areas. Researchers in ‘’ Alto’’ University estimate via recent data that around 1,9 million people which is 28% of the world population live 100km near to the coast in areas which rise above sea level by at least 100m.
By 2050, it is expected that the number of individuals in these areas will reach 2.4 billion people; on the other hand, number of individuals who live in areas 5 meters below may reach 500 million people. Most of these people will need to adapt with their living in climate change. Moreover, the study also shows that while the number of inhabitants and resources that aids their stay there are concentrated on the sea. Food resources should be away from these areas where people live in. Altitudes and mountain areas became more important for food production, additionally, it is susceptible to climatic changes.
Throughout the past century, there was a direct approach that areas of agricultural lands and pastures grew up in most areas outside densely crowded areas. On the other hand, it lessened on coastal areas, and it will probably continue on this pattern only in the future. The study reveals that despite enormous census and food resources, its growth continues to confine near the coast. Moreover, it even confines on a faster rate than the growth of other food resources in internal and mountainous areas.
In the future, when evaluating the situation from a geographical point of view; the world will become a less variable and balanced when it comes to civilization and economic production. Huge part of the world will be crowded with inhabitants and resources; on the other hand, another part will be completely without both of them.
Carbone dioxide emission rate in air in 2015.
This statistic was made by Mawna Lou national observatory for studying oceans and atmosphere in Hawaii, it showed That the rates of Carbone dioxide in the atmosphere in 2015 has reached 3,05 molecules in a million.
The effect of global warming on rainfall.
Global warming, which is one of the climate change phenomena, leads to excessive rainfall in the driest areas in the world. Thus, this increases humidity and it becomes similar to humid areas. According to a search study, it states that global warming lead to increase rainfall in dry and tropical areas on earth. On the other hand, increase rainfall lead to floods in low areas. Yet, this expected increase in rainfall in dry areas does not necessary mean that it will provide large amounts of water because of the high temperatures caused by global warming which leads to the increase of evaporation rate. Consequently, floods will affect simply on increase rates of stored groundwater. This research has also demonstrated that rainfall which increases in dry areas is considered a local measure to these areas and it is not considered a global rate.
Measures to stop global warming phenomena.
Scientist from the national ocean center (NOC) and 9 other multidisciplinary research organizations work on a project which seeks to understand the reason behind global warming from one decade to another.
This project is called in short ‘’ SMURPHS’’ and it aims to find guarantees and understandings to stop and address this phenomena. Researchers from ‘’ Southampton’’ University and ‘’ The National Ocean Center’’ have published researches which demonstrate the important rules behind the absorption of heat by oceans such as the Atlantic, pacific and the southern ocean which is considered the most recent deceleration of the global warming phenomena. Project ‘’ SMURPHS’’ will deal with the reason behind different global warming rate along different intervals and thus, the team conducting the project will inform the government about adaptation policies with climate change. The absorption of heat by oceans is one of the processes which will contribute in climate moderation. On the other hand, the National Association of Oil will work on providing highly technical and precise operations to observe oceans and making models of oceans rotation which will help the project to succeed.
Nuclear Power and climate change.
If we talk about nuclear power and its uses to limit emissions of gases which cause climate change, we would find that many scientists gave their lives to search and understand causes of climate change in order to find a way to keep earth away from brutal changes which will continue to harm it. There examples of this damage caused by such changes and they: the continuous increase in sea level, the total loss of ice in North Pole and its’ destructive consequences on human societies, ecological, environmental and natural systems. There are measures to solve this crisis and they have discussed in ‘’Paris conference for climate’’ by more than 100 countries. The only result from this conference is the confirmation that if no one applies strong measures to limit these threatening emissions until after 2030, then, these emissions will continue to increase. Nuclear power is considered scalable energy and useful for the environment and especially the upcoming generation of it which works in a closed oil circle (the consumed oil is recycled). Nuclear power stations have worked along the previous 50 years on preventing the emission of around 60 billion tons of Carbone dioxide to the atmosphere. This was done through compensating the burning fossil oil. Building 61 nuclear reactors a year can make nuclear energy a substitute for electricity which uses fossil fuel and this can be achieved by 2050. Building 54 nuclear reactors can help with the world demand on electricity due to population growth and development in most indigence countries/ Additionally, solar and wind power are good substitutes to produce electricity and thus, this leads to the decrease of emissions rate which cause serious climate changes.
Documentary movies are considered a simple reference which one will never get bored with or cease to learn more from it. When it comes to climate changes, there are many documentaries which discuss it and we present a distinctive group and they are as follows:
- Ferocious weather: Heat driving force.
- Six degrees changing the earth.
- Mysterious facts.
- Climate control.
You can also download ‘’ biodiversity and climate change’’ book from here, and ‘’ climate change; which path do we choose?’’ from here.