Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells in the Langerhans Islands, which are found in the pancreas gland and are released directly into the bloodstream. In general, insulin makes sugar available from blood to cells to burn and produce energy. This is the basic function of insulin. A person needs energy continuously to carry out his various vital functions, such as breathing, metabolism and movement. When a person makes an effort, his body needs energy to increase, as well as the process of burning sugar in cells to produce energy, the body burns fat to get energy as well. Fat is another source of energy, Sugar is faster and easier to maintain. The sections of this article provide a more detailed definition of insulin function.
Information on Insulin
- After insulin is released into the blood, it moves to open the walls of the cells to enter the sugar that the body gets through food, where it is burned in cells to produce the energy needed to perform the body functions.
- The first to isolate insulin was Dr. Frederick Grant Panting, who was in 1922 at the University of Toronto, Canada, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his research and his efforts to achieve this discovery in 1923.
The normal blood sugar level in the healthy body ranges between 70-100 mg / dL, and this should be maintained within the normal range; however, sugar increases sometimes after eating and decreases during fasting, and sugar is maintained within the natural area by balancing between Insulin is a hypoglycemic hormone and a glucagon hormone that raises sugar.
When eating, the blood sugar rises, and the pancreas begins to secrete the insulin hormone to balance the blood sugar in proportion to fit with it.
The functions of insulin can be summarized as follows:
- Glucose is the energy fuel needed by the body and the building of cells, and is necessary to build proteins and fats; the body benefits from this substance thanks to insulin, which helps to enter glucose into cells, if the amount of insulin excreted from the pancreas is sufficient, the proportion of glucose in the blood, This causes diabetes.
- Insulin encourages the liver and muscle to store excess sugar in the form of glycogen. If excess sugar remains, it is stored in fat cells after converting it into fatty substances.
- Insulin affects the mechanism of the body’s use of protein, fat and mineral salts.
- Insulin is used medically to treat some cases of diabetes.
Types of insulin hormone
The insulin hormone is divided into four types, divided according to the extent of its effectiveness in the body after its use to treat diabetes:
- Insulin is very fast acting: It is a clear liquid color; it starts after 10 minutes of injection, and lasts for 3 to 4 hours.
- Fast-acting insulin (regular): It is a clear liquid without color; it starts after 30 minutes of injection, and lasts for 6 to 10 hours.
- Insulin is medium in effect: It is not the net color, but crystal color suspended; it starts after an hour of injection, while the period of the effect in the body extends up to 20-24 hours.
- Insulin is slow acting: it is a liquid that is not suspended; it starts in the body after the injection two hours or more, and extends up to 18-24 hours.